The Association of University Presidents of China (AUPC) was founded in November 1997. It was initiated by the Presidents of a group of acclaimed research intensive universities in China and was approved by the State Education Commission (now known as Ministry of Education). The ten founding members are Shanghai Jiaotong University, Peking University, Xian Jiaotong University, Fudan University, Nanjing University, The University of Hong Kong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. In 2009, the Association approved University of Science and Technology of China, and Harbin Institute of Technology as new members. It now has a total of 12 member universities.